What I have wanted to understand myself for some time is how blood ketone levels respond to different levels of dietary carbohydrate and what is required to get blood ketone levels into the range of 1.25 to 2.75 mmol/L.
That vagueness of P&V about the x-axis is what drove me to try to figure out what the y-axix might be.
P&V got BHOB up to 1.26 by testing on active bicyclists peddling 200 miles a day (table 2 see link
). That's more effort than I am willing to go through and if is still just a calorie flux, which the NuSi study finds, then there really is no point. I'm much more interested in the appetite suppression aspects.
That's awesome. That brings home the point that ketones are just an intermediated between fatty acids and CO2/H2O and a clue on which organs are making them and which ones are taking them.
In the morning, they start low. They were taken away at night. By what? Probably every organ but the I would guess the brain in particular. Maybe the brain has a hard time with AcAc and BHOB so that's an indication that it's just everything. During the morning they shift down suddenly... why? Dunno. They stay remarkably steady until 5pm. What the heck happened at 4:30 to cause them to jump like that? Eating? Eating fat I would guess which puts to the lie that ketones are an indication of body fat utilization (we hope that's what it means but can never know it). This indicates that the fat was metabolized by a particular organ and not the muscles as I don't think you suddenly ran a 5k after dinner. My guess is it was the liver. They then gradually climb through bedtime maybe because you were sedentary (?) then fall again at night.
If that speculation about the liver is correct then you may have been "fat starved" before dinner and your body was up-regulating the release of FFA's during the day until your blood stream was saturated by dietary fat at dinner. This information on a buffering mechanism is important, I think.
These times are just as if not more important to knowing what's going on as the absolute values themselves. This is great stuff.
Watching how calories move through the body is fascinating to me, more so in the form of ketones. One interesting thing is that I would guess your blood sugar was on the low side and constant. That means all your organs had normal amounts of blood sugar available to them in addition to fat and ketones.
BTW - If you haven't already there is a paper out there on insulin index which I think you would enjoy. Fung references it here
and I believe it is behind a paywall here