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  #1   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 04:40
JEY100's Avatar
JEY100 JEY100 is offline
To Good Health!
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Default The Keto Diet Is Popular, but Is It Good for You?

The Keto Diet Is Popular, but Is It Good for You?
Low-carb, high-fat eating can lead to weight loss, but scientists debate the long-term effects on health.


By Anahad O'Connor in the NYT. He has written positively before about Keto, this one is balanced.

Quote:
Low-carbohydrate diets have fallen in and out of favor since before the days of Atkins. But now an even stricter version of low-carb eating called the ketogenic diet is gaining popular attention, igniting a fierce scientific debate about its potential risks and benefits.

Both the Atkins and ketogenic diets encourage followers to cut carbs from their diets. But while the Atkins diet gradually increases carbs over time, keto places firm limits on carbs and protein. This way of eating depletes the body of glucose, forcing it to primarily burn fat and produce an alternate source of fuel called ketones. A typical ketogenic diet restricts carbs to less than 10 percent of calories and limits protein to 20 percent, while fat makes up the rest.

The keto diet has been popularized in best-selling books, promoted by celebrities and touted on social media as an antidote to various ailments. Proponents say it causes substantial weight loss and can help those with Type 2 diabetes dramatically improve their blood sugar levels, which fall when people avoid carbs.

There have been many studies of the ketogenic diet over the years, but most have been small and of fairly short duration. A federal registry of clinical research shows that more than 70 trials looking at the diet’s impact on brain, cardiovascular and metabolic health are either underway or in the beginning stages.

Dr. Ethan Weiss, a researcher and preventive cardiologist at the University of California, San Francisco, had long been skeptical of low-carb diets but decided to experiment with the ketogenic diet a couple years ago. In a typical day he skips breakfast and eats mostly salads, nuts, cheese, roasted vegetables and grilled chicken, fish or tofu, as well as dark chocolate for dessert. The result, he says: He lost 20 pounds and had to buy a new wardrobe.

“I haven’t felt this good since I was in high school,” he said.

Dr. Weiss subsequently started a company and a weight loss app with a former Weight Watchers vice president, raised $2.5 million from a group of Silicon Valley investors and started selling a $99 pen-size breathalyzer device, called Keyto, that allows users to measure their ketone levels and track how the diet is working for them.


“Our mission is to make doing this diet easier and more sustainable so people can make changes that allow them to lead a healthier lifestyle,” he said.

But the ketogenic diet has no shortage of detractors. Some doctors and health experts say it can lead to quick weight loss but that it is no more effective than other diets in the long term. And many say they find it worrisome because it encourages foods high in saturated fat, which have been linked to heart disease, while restricting nutrient-rich foods supported by decades of research, like beans, fruits, starchy vegetables and whole grains.

Last month, three doctors published an essay in JAMA Internal Medicine cautioning that the enthusiasm for the diet as a treatment for obesity and diabetes “outpaces” the evidence. They pointed to studies suggesting that it had little advantage over lower fat diets for blood sugar control, and that it could cause adverse effects like constipation, fatigue and, in some people, an increase in LDL cholesterol particles, a risk factor for heart disease.



“The greatest risk, however, of the ketogenic diet may be the one most overlooked: the opportunity cost of not eating high-fiber, unrefined carbohydrates,” the authors wrote. “Whole grains, fruits and legumes are some of the most health-promoting foods on the planet. They are not responsible for the epidemics of Type 2 diabetes or obesity, and their avoidance may do harm.”

Dr. Shivam Joshi, a co-author of the piece, said it generated a flood of emails from people across the globe. Some expressed praise and support, while others offered condemnation, a sign of just how polarizing the diet can be, said Dr. Joshi, an attending physician at NYC Health + Hospitals/Bellevue and a clinical assistant professor at New York University medical school.

“It’s a hot-button issue, and this paper struck a chord,” he added.

While the ketogenic diet can seem like the latest in an endless stream of fad diets, it has a long history of therapeutic uses. Diabetics routinely practiced carb restriction before the discovery of insulin in the 1920s, and doctors at Johns Hopkins and other hospitals have used the diet for almost a century to reduce seizures in patients with epilepsy.

One of the benefits of carb restriction is that blood sugar levels remain stable after a meal, resulting in lower levels of insulin, a hormone that causes weight gain, said Dr. David Ludwig, an endocrinologist at Harvard Medical School and the author of a best-selling book on low-carb diets.

“Insulin is like a Miracle-Gro for fat cells,” he said. “By lowering insulin levels, fewer calories from the meal may get stored in fat cells, leaving more to fuel metabolism and feed the brain. As a result, you may feel fuller longer after eating.”

In a series of studies over the years, Dr. Ludwig has found that low carb diets cause people to burn more calories and lose more weight compared to lower fat diets. According to the carb and insulin theory of obesity, whole grains, starchy vegetables and tropical fruits are more healthful than processed carbs. But they can still cause swings in blood sugar and insulin after a meal, and that can be particularly problematic for people with diabetes, said Dr. Ludwig.

In May, the American Diabetes Association published a consensus statement on nutrition strategies for people with diabetes. It found that a variety of diets rich in unprocessed foods, like the Mediterranean and vegetarian diets, could help people prevent and manage the disease. But it also concluded that reducing overall carb intake “has demonstrated the most evidence” for improving blood sugar control.

“Carbohydrate is the macronutrient that most contributes to your blood sugar, and so it makes sense that reducing it is going to give you the biggest bang for your buck,” said the lead author of the report, Dr. William S. Yancy, Jr., an associate professor at Duke medical school and the director of the Duke Diet and Fitness Center.

But the carb and insulin explanation for obesity is the subject of much debate. Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have published research showing that people actually burn more calories on low-fat diets, and many experts contend that in the end, people will lose weight on any diet so long as they consume fewer calories.

Ultimately it is hard to reach definitive answers on any diet because nutrition studies tend to be short-term and not very rigorous, and there is tremendous variation in how people respond to different diets, said Dr. Steven B. Heymsfield, the president of the Obesity Society and the director of the Body Composition-Metabolism Laboratory at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, La. Studies show that while some people who adopt a very low-carb diet experience a significant increase in their LDL cholesterol levels, for example, others see little or no change at all.

Dr. Heymsfield said he recommends a few things to people who try the ketogenic diet. He suggests limiting foods high in saturated fat like butter, meat and cheese and focusing on foods with unsaturated fats like olive oil, seafood, nuts, chicken and avocado. Consult a dietitian or doctor for their guidance, he said, and ask yourself if you are willing to commit to the diet for the long term.

“You have to set down a lifestyle and a healthy eating plan that you think you can adhere to for the rest of your life, because these things only work while you’re doing them,” he said.



https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/20/...od-for-you.html
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  #2   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 08:04
Bob-a-rama's Avatar
Bob-a-rama Bob-a-rama is offline
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I've been on a keto diet since it was called Atkins Introduction (I never got over 20 carbs/day without gaining).

I'm 73. Last year I had my heart and circulation tested by a heart doctor. I have the heart and circulatory system of a 50 year old. I eat cheese and/or butter and meat almost every day.

So much for saturated fat being bad (for me at least - YMMV)

Bob
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  #3   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 08:29
khrussva's Avatar
khrussva khrussva is offline
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Default

This piece was nicely balanced -- if not leaning towards 'in favor'. Thanks for posting, Janet.

Quote:
There have been many studies of the ketogenic diet over the years, but most have been small and of fairly short duration. A federal registry of clinical research shows that more than 70 trials looking at the diet’s impact on brain, cardiovascular and metabolic health are either underway or in the beginning stages.

It wasn't so long ago that nobody would propose a study involving a LCHF diet. Not only would it not be funded, but they'd be lambasted for their unethical behavior and stupidity for challenging the settled perfection of a high carb, low fat diet. Times are changing.

Last edited by khrussva : Tue, Aug-20-19 at 09:29.
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  #4   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 09:04
Little Me's Avatar
Little Me Little Me is offline
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Nice to read a logical article that doesn’t trash LCHF and try to scare you.

Thanks Janet.
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  #5   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 09:21
Ms Arielle's Avatar
Ms Arielle Ms Arielle is offline
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A somewhat positive article is refreshing.

FUnny, how my failure is always because of the heavy influence of those around me that are NOT eating a "healthy", and I mean LC diet.....not the failure of the diet plan itself. If LCers got more support, more would stay with it. Im careful to never mention LCing to my doc.
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  #6   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 09:56
CityGirl8 CityGirl8 is offline
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Quote:
“Whole grains, fruits and legumes are some of the most health-promoting foods on the planet. They are not responsible for the epidemics of Type 2 diabetes or obesity, and their avoidance may do harm.”
I think most of us would disagree that avoiding them will do any harm. It may be true that those foods are not responsible for the T2 and obesity epidemics--if they are eaten in moderation as part of an otherwise healthy diet (adequate protein, low sugar, etc., not pasta, bread, bagels, cereal, sandwiches, ice cream and cookies). The issue is that once someone has gotten T2, obesity or other metabolic problem, there needs to be a cure. The cure involves cutting those things out. If you break your leg, you need a cast. No one is saying the cast is responsible for the accident that broke your leg.

It would have been nice to see some of these ideas challenged or given the researchers a chance to respond to these kinds of comments. But it was more balanced than we usually see.
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  #7   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 10:24
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thud123 thud123 is online now
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Little Me
Nice to read a logical article that doesn’t trash LCHF and try to scare you.

Thanks Janet.

Nor trash "healthy carbs" - like most of you here I was nodding my head in agreement and when the author mentioned stuff that I might not agree with, being a low carb hyper advocate and all, I muttered, "...fair point"

This article should cause one to do more reading on both types of diets that seem to help type 2 diabeetus - High Fat Low Carb and Low Fat High Carb (healthy essential whole food carbs like beans, whole grains and fruits mentioned)

Stop eating !~#$ shuggar and anyone's health is likely to take a giant leap forward, or at least slow down the inevitable spiral down of health and make more comfortable as we approach our deaths. All of our deaths, Vegans and Carnivores alike.

Thanks for posting this J, gives one some hope that there's some sense out there in print
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  #8   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 10:53
GRB5111's Avatar
GRB5111 GRB5111 is offline
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Encouraging indicator that we are making progress with broader acceptance of alternative approaches for healthy eating. Things are slowly moving in the right direction and away from misinformed outrage.
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  #9   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 11:06
Meme#1's Avatar
Meme#1 Meme#1 is offline
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Hummus, black beans are two legumes I went my whole life without eating and all of a sudden a few years back it was being touted as "super food"

“Whole grains, fruits and legumes are some of the most health-promoting foods on the planet. They are not responsible for the epidemics of Type 2 diabetes or obesity, and their avoidance may do harm.”

Lets just say that with my genetics, those foods didn't exist in that part of the world.

I think it's been nothing but marketing propaganda like so many other things.
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  #10   ^
Old Tue, Aug-20-19, 11:43
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Mycie14 Mycie14 is offline
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A pretty balanced article which is nice for a change. However, they always have to put in there a statement, " yeah it may work, but only as long as you stick to it", as if that was unique to low carb/keto!

I've been dieting since 6th grade. Did all forms of Weight Watchers, from the 70's version which was pretty low carb, to the 90's version of low fat/points. It only worked for weight loss when, wait for it.... I stuck to it religiously! You go off strict low fat/calorie counting, you gain all the weight back plus more.

So, which diet can one stick to without having to white knuckle hunger all day, every day? Low carb/keto wins that hands down for most people. And the reason, as we know, is lower insulin and better control of blood glucose.
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  #11   ^
Old Wed, Aug-21-19, 10:38
CityGirl8 CityGirl8 is offline
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Quote:
Dr. Heymsfield said he recommends a few things to people who try the ketogenic diet. He suggests limiting foods high in saturated fat like butter, meat and cheese and focusing on foods with unsaturated fats like olive oil, seafood, nuts, chicken and avocado.
This was also a somewhat disappointing end note. Since the need to cut saturated fat lacks any scientific evidence, it's just more parroting the party line from the last 50 years.
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  #12   ^
Old Wed, Aug-21-19, 16:43
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Dodger Dodger is offline
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I don't know about other people, but the Keto diet has been quite good for me. The large amount of saturated fats that I eat have not had any negative effects.
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  #13   ^
Old Wed, Aug-21-19, 19:34
Ms Arielle's Avatar
Ms Arielle Ms Arielle is offline
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Plan: atkins
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Quote:
Originally Posted by CityGirl8
This was also a somewhat disappointing end note. Since the need to cut saturated fat lacks any scientific evidence, it's just more parroting the party line from the last 50 years.



CG, while I understand your point, I have started to be rather concerned about animal fats. Not because of the saturated structure but because of the conce ntrated herbicides and pesticides accumulated in that fat.
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  #14   ^
Old Thu, Aug-22-19, 07:49
teaser's Avatar
teaser teaser is offline
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I'm not that concerned with herbicides and pesticides in the animal fat that I eat. Do you have a source showing that they're present in at a harmful level? Dose makes the poison.

Same goes for those who want me to stare at the ceiling all night, worried about the lectins in the beans I don't eat.
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  #15   ^
Old Thu, Aug-22-19, 08:21
Bob-a-rama's Avatar
Bob-a-rama Bob-a-rama is offline
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Plan: Keto (Atkins Induction)
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ms Arielle
CG, while I understand your point, I have started to be rather concerned about animal fats. Not because of the saturated structure but because of the conce ntrated herbicides and pesticides accumulated in that fat.

I eat:
  • 100% grass-fed organic beef
  • Organic cream in my coffee
  • European butter (Kerry Gold or Finlandia taste the best to me)
  • European Cheese
Europe has much tighter controls over herbicides, pesticides and hormones. Many pesticides and herbicides that are saturated on our crops are banned there. Plus, the milk is from predominantly A2 type cows and they don't allow rBGH -- so their butter and cheese is much less polluted than ours.

I could buy US organic cheese, by my DW has a sensitivity to A1 milk products and most US cheese and butter is from A1 cows.

Because they have nationalized or socialized medicine (depending on the country), European countries are more interested in preventing disease, thus lowering their costs in treating disease.

I'm not a paranoid about every pollutant entering my body, as the body has defenses for that, but I just feel it's prudent to minimize the impact when I can.

Bob
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